Neuroscience смотреть последние обновления за сегодня на .
A paradigm shift in how we think about the functions of the human brain. A long-awaited genetic sequence of Rafflesia arnoldii, the strangest flower in the world. A revelation in sleep science. These are some of the year's biggest discoveries in neuroscience and other areas of biology. Read the articles in full at Quanta: 🤍 - VISIT our Website: 🤍 - LIKE us on Facebook: 🤍 - FOLLOW us Twitter: 🤍 Quanta Magazine is an editorially independent publication supported by the Simons Foundation 🤍
Jess Leff '24 studies neuroscience and helps research mental illness! What would you study? #shorts #stem #harvard
Each month The Brain & Behavior Research Foundation hosts a Meet the Scientist Webinar featuring a researcher discussing the latest findings related to mental illness. In March, 2023, the Foundation featured Dr. Rachel Amy Ross of the Albert Einstein College of Medicine. Description: Studying uniquely human illness, such as Anorexia Nervosa, is difficult in animal models. However, it is necessary to understand the biology underlying these complex disorders to develop improved treatments. Dr. Ross will describe how her lab works with mouse models in order to advance our knowledge and describe potential treatment targets for Anorexia Nervosa and other diseases that affect both the brain and the body. Learn more at 🤍 Visit us on the web: 🤍 If you like this presentation, please share it!
MIT 7.013 Introductory Biology, Spring 2011 View the complete course: 🤍 Instructor: Hazel Sive In this lecture, Professor Sive explains the nervous system as a communication network, beginning with neurons, action potentials, and ion channels and pumps. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at 🤍 More courses at 🤍
Neuroscientist and former addict Marc Lewis makes the case that addiction isn't a disease at all, although it has been recently branded as such. Watch the Q&A: 🤍 Subscribe for regular science videos: 🤍 Marc's book "The Biology of Desire: Why Addiction is Not a Disease" is available now - 🤍 In recent decades doctors have branded addiction a brain disease, and treated it as such. But in this riveting and provocative talk, neuroscientist and former addict Marc Lewis makes the convincing case that addiction isn’t a disease at all. Using personal stories and robust science, he explains how addiction really impacts our brains, and how neuroplasticity and a developmental approach to treatment can help to overcome it. Marc Lewis is a neuroscientist and professor of developmental psychology, recently at the University of Toronto, where he taught and conducted research from 1989 to 2010, and presently at Radboud University in the Netherlands. He is the author or co-author of over 50 journal publications in psychology and neuroscience, editor of an academic book on developmental psychology, and co-author of a book for parents. More recently he has written two books concerning addiction. Subscribe for regular science videos: 🤍 The Ri is on Twitter: 🤍 and Facebook: 🤍 and Tumblr: 🤍 Our editorial policy: 🤍 Subscribe for the latest science videos: 🤍
How do babies recognize faces? Why do some children develop autism? Does musical training improve reading skills? Here at the Labs of Cognitive Neuroscience, we are working to shed light on such questions through a variety of ongoing studies. By learning more about brain and behavior development across the lifespan, we aim to contribute to the healthy growth and development of our children. We have a growing program of research dedicated to infants and children who are either at risk for falling off a typical developmental path or have already been diagnosed with a developmental disorder. We strongly believe that the knowledge gained through our research will lead to earlier diagnosis, better treatment, and better outcomes for children and families affected by these disorders.
(April 21, 2010) Nathan Woodling and Anthony Chung-Ming Ng give a broad overview of the field of neuroscience and how it relates to human biology. They discuss the different lobes of the brain and the cells within as well as neuropharmacology and re-uptake. Stanford University 🤍 Stanford Department of Biology 🤍 Stanford University Channel on YouTube 🤍
If you've graduated recently with a degree in neuroscience, or if you're on your way, you might be asking yourself, "what kind of job can I get?" You may feel like there's no obvious next step, but that's why we're here to help! Alie covers a wide variety of careers for different levels of degrees, including Bachelor's, Master's, PhD, and Medical degrees. Special shoutout to these wonderful folks who graciously sent in videos to share their careers: Adam Tozer Alycia Mosley Austin Nick Wan Nour Al-muhtasib Ana Mingorance Kevin Horecka Kaliris Salas-Ramirez Jens Foell Ginny Smith Brittney Fair Gonzalo Ruiz (Drop of Curiosity) Jaclyn Dunphy Thiago Arzua Phaedra Norrell Andrew Neff Vy Vo Justin Kiggins Patreon: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Reddit: 🤍 Website: 🤍e This episode is supported by our wonderful Patreon Producers: Ryan M. Shaver Carrie McKenzie Corvi You three are the best! You're like a new log on a dying fire. And thanks to our other supportive Patrons, including: Adri Cortesia Kevin Koopmann Marcelo Kenji Brian McComb Gary Rick Harold Mary Smith Jareth Arnold Linda L Schubert Raymond Chin Ktb City Beautiful Up and Atom Memming Park Alex Dainis Susan Jones Eric Earley Dr. Ali Mattu Linh Vandermar Stephen Smith Noah McCann Marcel Ward Ilsa Jerome Neuro Transmissions is a channel on a mission to bring neuroscience to everyone. It's not rocket surgery, it's brain science! Subscribe for new brain videos every other Sunday! Got a question for us to answer? Let us know in the comments - we’d love to explore more of your questions! Share, like, and subscribe for more videos to come! Over and out. #neuroscience #careers #neuro
There are two demos in this talk that you can try at home exploring how we perceive and recollect visual scenes: 1. Image distance demo: You are given a 3 second countdown before seeing a quick sequence of two pictures of the same object, divided briefly by a visual mask. The challenge is to identify whether the second picture is the same view as the first, or whether it's moved closer or further away. Try it yourself 🤍 2. Drawing from memory demo: You have 15 seconds to look at a picture, which you'll then be asked to draw, as accurately as possible, from memory. Try it now 🤍 Our memories are our lives, and a fundamental basis of our culture. Collective memoirs of the past both bind society together and shape our potential future. With our brains we can travel through time and space, calling to mind places of significance, evoking images and emotions of past experiences. It's no wonder, then, that we so desperately fear the prospect of memory loss. Many regions of the brain are involved in memory, but one of the most critical components is the hippocampus, which plays a crucial role in the formation of long-term memories. Damage to the hippocampus can therefore result in significant memory loss. In this Friday Evening Discourse, Eleanor Maguire draws on evidence from virtual reality, brain imaging and studies of amnesia to show that the consequences of hippocampal damage are even more far-reaching than suspected, robbing us of our past, our imagination and altering our perception of the world. Maguire also explains how, despite our beliefs, our memories are not actually as accurate as you might think. In fact, they're not really even about the past. This event is part of our all-women line up for Friday Evening Discourses in 2014 as part of our year long celebration of women in science. Find out more here 🤍 The Ri is on Twitter: 🤍 and Facebook: 🤍 and Tumblr: 🤍 Our editorial policy: 🤍 Subscribe for the latest science videos: 🤍 Thumbnail image credit: Gontzal García del Caño on Flickr (🤍
(April 23, 2010) Patrick House discusses memories and how they are formed. Dana Turker then lectures about the autonomic nervous system and its functions. Stanford University 🤍 Stanford Department of Biology 🤍 Stanford University Channel on YouTube 🤍
The Warren Alpert Foundation Prize honors Edward Boyden, Karl Deisseroth, Peter Hegemann and Gero Miesenböck for the development of optogenetics as a way to control the activity of specific circuits in the nervous system, to determine their function and ultimately to control them to treat neurological and psychiatric disorders. Featured Speakers: Edward Boyden, PhD, Y. Eva Tan Professor in Neurotechnology at MIT, Leader of the Synthetic Neurobiology Group in the MIT Media Lab, Investigator at McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, and HHMI-Simons Faculty Scholar at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Karl Deisseroth, MD, PhD, D.H. Chen Professor of Bioengineering and of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences at Stanford University and Investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute Peter Hegemann, PhD, Hertie Professor of Neuroscience and head of experimental biophysics at Humboldt University of Berlin Gero Miesenböck, FRS, Waynflete Professor of Physiology and founding director of the Centre for Neural Circuits and Behaviour at University of Oxford Charlotte Arlt, PhD, Research fellow in neurobiology at Harvard Medical School Kimberly Reinhold, PhD, Research fellow in neurobiology at Harvard Medical School Like Harvard Medical School on Facebook: 🤍 Follow on Twitter: 🤍 Follow on Instagram: 🤍 Follow on LinkedIn: 🤍 Website: 🤍
MIT RES.9-003 Brains, Minds and Machines Summer Course, Summer 2015 View the complete course: 🤍 Instructor: Nancy Kanwisher Functional architecture of the human brain. Historical evolution of theories and empirical methods revealing areas of functional specialization for mental processes. Introduction to fMRI. License: Creative Commons BY-NC-SA More information at 🤍 More courses at 🤍
Alie knows all about how stressful grad school can be. But what happens when stress is more than just stress? This week, we're talking about the neuroscience of anxiety. And for Alie, it's personal. Sources: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 Support us on Patreon - 🤍 HUGE thanks to our Patreon supporters, particularly to Ryan M. Shaver, Carrie McKenzie, and Brandon Cisneros - our Patreon Producers. Thanks you three! Neuro Transmissions is a channel on a mission to bring neuroscience to everyone. It's not rocket surgery, it's brain science! Learn all sorts of fun and interesting things with Alie Astrocyte every other Sunday by subscribing to the channel. Have a topic you want covered? Let us know in the comments. Share, like, and subscribe for more videos to come! Over and out. Neuro Transmissions is on the other social medias too: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍e Snapchat - 🤍neuroyoutube Brain images from Motifolio drawing toolkits (🤍motifolio.com) “In The Mist” by Trackmanbeatz is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. Artist: 🤍trackmanbeatz.com "Hoedown" by Audionautix is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution license (🤍 Artist: 🤍 The following images and video are Creative Commons and were used for educational purposes: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 The following images were used for educational purposes and fall under fair use laws: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 Clip from This Is Spinal Tap was used for educational, non-profit purposes. All other content is original and/or owned by Neuro Transmissions.
ADHD might seem like a convenient excuse to be able to medicate your overactive child. But it turns out that ADHD is a real diagnosis with a different combination of symptoms for each person. There are still a lot of questions surrounding it. What causes it? How is it treated? And what does ADHD look like in the brain? Well, we dive into exactly those topics. In addition, two of our close friends, Cindy and Steve, both have ADHD and they share their experiences and how life as an adult is with ADHD. Huge, huge thank you to Cindy and Steve for their openness and insight. There was a lot of footage from the interview that we didn't use, but it was all incredible. We feel lucky to have such kind, smart, giving friends. This video would not have been nearly as interesting without their help. Sources: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍 Patreon: 🤍 Twitter: 🤍 Facebook: 🤍 Instagram: 🤍 Reddit: 🤍 Website: 🤍e Snapchat: neuroyoutube This episode is supported by our wonderful Patreon Producers: Ryan M. Shaver Carrie McKenzie Corvi You three are the best! You’re like fitting the last piece of a jigsaw puzzle. And thanks to our other supportive Patrons, including: Gary Rick Harold Mary Smith Jareth Arnold Linda L Schubert Ayan Doss Raymond Chin Ktb City Beautiful Up and Atom Memming Park Alex Dainis Susan Jones Eric Earley Dr. Ali Mattu Linh Vandermar Stephen Smith Noah McCann Marcel Ward Ilsa Jerome Neuro Transmissions is a channel on a mission to bring neuroscience to everyone. It's not rocket surgery, it's brain science! Subscribe for new brain videos every other Sunday! Got a question for us to answer? Let us know in the comments - we’d love to explore more of your questions! Share, like, and subscribe for more videos to come! Over and out. *Credits* Footage from “Up”, "Finding Nemo", "The Sound of Music", "Parks and Recreation", ”Winnie The Pooh", "Seinfield", "Mrs. Doubtfire", and "Back to the Future" was used for nonprofit educational purposes and was intended to benefit the public by teaching scientific concepts through relatable content. Therefore, they fall under fair use. The following images were used for educational purposes: 🤍 🤍 The following images fall under Creative Commons: Creative Commons: 🤍 🤍 🤍 All other content is original and/or owned by Neuro Transmissions. #neuroscience #adhd #brain
Addiction is a complex disorder that can be defined as a "loss of control over a reward-seeking behaviour" (Robert West, 2006). According to Kolb and Volkow (2010;2016), the cycle of addiction involves three stages, each of which implicate distinct neurobiological circuits: 1) Binge-intoxication; 2) Negative Affect and Withdrawal; 3) Preoccupation and Craving. This brief animation will explain these stages, along with the key neural structures that are impacted (and altered) by chronic drug use. This video is licensed under CC BY-NC-ND 4.0 🤍 Visit Carleton's Neuroscience Department at 🤍 and check out the podcast at 🤍
Alie gets personal and talks about how she discovered neuroscience and why she is passionate about it. Alie had no intention of being a neuroscientist when she started out. So what changed her mind? Find out on this episode! Neuroscience is an excellent field to be in right now. More and more universities are starting to offer neuroscience as a major. With the recent brain initiative and all of the new research about the brain, we are realizing how much we *don't* know. If you are interested in neuroscience as a career, talk to your advisor to find out more information. Feel free to leave comments below and we'll try to answer any questions you may have. Sources: 🤍 🤍 🤍 Check us out on Patreon - 🤍 Ryan M. Shaver, Carrie McKenzie, and Raymond Chin are our three Patreon Producers. Thanks you three! You're the wind beneath our wings! Also, big shoutout to our newest patrons and folks who have increased their pledges: Up & Atom, Alex Dainis, Mary Smith, Susan Jones, and Memming Park! Neuro Transmissions is a channel on a mission to bring neuroscience to everyone. It's not rocket surgery, it's brain science! Learn all sorts of fun and interesting things with Alie Astrocyte and Micah Psych every other Sunday by subscribing to the channel. Have a topic you want covered? Let us know in the comments. Share, like, and subscribe for more videos to come! Over and out. Neuro Transmissions is on the other social medias too: 🤍 🤍 🤍 🤍e 🤍 Snapchat - 🤍neuroyoutube *Credits* The following images and videos were used for educational purposes and fall under fair use: 🤍 🤍 🤍 Vector images from freepik.com All other content is original and/or owned by Neuro Transmissions.
In her talk, Dr. Grisel takes us through her journey through addiction and sobriety. Her talk, however, focuses on the neuroscience of addiction and how substances can alter your brain making it harder to recover and how these disorders take hold of our lives. Professor of Psychology, Researcher in Neuroscience and Addiction, Author of "Never Enough" This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at 🤍
Fred Barrett, Ph.D., Associate Director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Psychedelic & Consciousness Research, discusses “The Cognitive Neuroscience of Psychedelic Drugs." The lecture was recorded March 23, 2023, at the Psychedelic Summit on the UC Davis Health campus in Sacramento, California. The UC Davis Psychedelic Summit brought together national experts to explore what the rapidly evolving field of psychedelics and neurotherapeutics may mean for neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative diseases. These new treatment types may hold promise for anxiety, depression, substance use, obsessive-compulsive and post-traumatic stress disorders, among others. The event was hosted by the UC Davis Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, the UC Davis Institute for Psychedelics and Neurotherapeutics, and the UC Davis Behavioral Health Center for Excellence. Watch more lectures from this conference: 🤍 Learn more about the Psychedelic Summit at UC Davis: 🤍 UC Davis Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences: 🤍 UC Davis Institute for Psychedelics and Neurotherapeutics: 🤍 UC Davis Behavioral Health Center for Excellence: 🤍 See the latest news from UC Davis Health: 🤍 The information in this video was accurate as of the upload date, 5/13/23. For information purposes only. Consult your local medical authority for advice.
(April 28, 2010) Robert Sapolsky continues the exploration of endocrinology and neurology. He looks at more complicated systems of communication within neurobiology, the limbic system's role in personality and behavior, abnormal behavior possibilities within these systems, and individual organism variation and imprinting. Stanford University 🤍 Stanford Department of Biology 🤍 Stanford University Channel on YouTube 🤍
Bruce McCandliss, professor in Stanford’s Graduate School of Education and the director of the Stanford Center for Mind, Brain and Computation, speaks about brain-imaging technology that is revolutionizing the study of educational experiences and their effect on the brain. Stanford University 125th Anniversary: 🤍 Stanford Center for Mind, Brain and Computation: 🤍 Stanford University Graduate School of Education: 🤍
Whether you're perfecting your free throw or picking up a new language, you need to form new pathways in your brain in order to learn anything. The scientific term for this process is called plasticity: your brain’s ability to create and strengthen connections between neurons. Keep learning: 🤍
The essential question in modern neurosciences is to understand how the human brain is functioning on all levels, from molecules to cognition. In order to approach these questions, the master of science program at the GSN-LMU provides basic and individual teaching concepts for students with an educational background in neurosciences but also from other related fields such as life sciences, math, physics, computational sciences, engineering and also philosophy (which is unique in the field of neuroscience degree programs). Special thanks to the labs and institutions involved in producing this movie: LMU Faculty of Biology - 🤍 Division of Neurobiology - 🤍 Prof. Laura Busse - 🤍 Prof. Anton Sirota - 🤍 Prof. Hans Straka - 🤍 Institute for Stroke and Dementia Research - 🤍 LMU Klinikum - 🤍 Prof. Inga Koerte - 🤍 Prof. Nikolaus Plesnila - 🤍 Max Planck Institute for Biological Intelligence (i.f.) - 🤍 Prof. Herwig Baier - 🤍 Chair of Information-oriented Control, TUM - 🤍 Prof. Sandra Hirche - 🤍 and 🤍 Center for Ethics and Philosophy in Practice - 🤍 Mensa Martinsried - 🤍
In this video, I cover directional terms in neuroscience. I discuss terms that are consistent throughout the nervous system: superior, inferior, anterior, posterior, medial and lateral. I also cover terms that change their meaning depending on whether we are looking at the brain or spinal cord: dorsal, ventral, rostral, and caudal. Finally, I discuss three types of sections the brain is commonly examined in: sagittal, horizontal/transverse, and coronal/frontal. For more neuroscience articles, videos, and a complete neuroscience glossary, check out my website at 🤍neurochallenged.com! TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss directional terms in neuroscience. There are several terms that we use to indicate direction in neuroscience. Some are very straightforward. For example, superior always means towards the top of the head, inferior always means towards the feet. Likewise, anterior always refers to the front of the body or the brain, while posterior always refers to the back of the body or the brain. There are also some terms, however, like dorsal and ventral, that change their meaning depending on whether we are referring to the brain or the spinal cord. When used for animals that move through the world horizontally, dorsal refers to the back and ventral refers to the abdominal region. With humans, the same usage applies when we are looking at the spinal cord. At the junction between the top of the brainstem and the diencephalon, however, the axis shifts due to the fact that humans walk upright. Above this level dorsal refers to the superior portion of the brain and ventral refers to the inferior portion. A similar situation occurs with the terms rostral and caudal. Rostral means towards the nose and caudal means towards the tail. In animals that swim or walk on all fours these orientations are consistent, but in humans they shift at the brainstem-diencephalon junction. At the level of the spinal cord, rostral points up towards the head while caudal points down towards the end of the cord. In the brain, however, rostral points towards the anterior part of the brain while caudal points toward the posterior part of the brain. The brain can also be examined on three different planes, and these planes are used to describe ways the brain is often sliced into sections for examination. A sagittal section is seen when a slice down the middle of the brain divides the brain into two separate halves. A horizontal or transverse section is made by slicing the brain perpendicular to the long axis of the body. A coronal or frontal section is seen when a slice is made parallel to the long axis of the body. When looking at the brain or spinal cord in any orientation, the parts of the brain that are closer to the midline are called medial, while those that are closer to the sides are called lateral. REFERENCE: Nolte J. The Human Brain: An Introduction to its Functional Anatomy. 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA. Elsevier; 2009.
In this video, I cover all of the main parts of a neuron including the dendrites, cell body (soma), axon hillock, axon, and axon terminals (synaptic boutons). I describe how a signal travels from the dendrites of a neuron, down the axon, and to the axon terminals to communicate with another neuron through the release of neurotransmitters. I also describe ways of categorizing neurons based on structure (i.e., multipolar, bipolar, unipolar, and pseudo-unipolar) and function (i.e., motor, sensory, and interneurons). Key points: 00:00 General introduction to neurons 1:17 How neurons communicate 2:12 Parts of a neuron 7:00 Classifying neurons based on structure 8:17 Classifying neurons based on function REFERENCES: Breedlove SM, Watson NV. Behavioral Neuroscience. 8th ed. Sunderland, MA: Sinauer Associates, Inc.; 2018. Kandel ER, Barres BA, Hudspeth AJ. 2013. Nerve Cells, Neural Circuitry, and Behavior. In: Kandel ER, Schwartz JH, Jessell TM, eds. Principles of Neural Science, 5th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a condition characterized by difficulties with attention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. In this video, I discuss perspectives on the neuroscience of ADHD. TRANSCRIPT: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD, is a condition characterized by difficulties with attention and/or hyperactivity and impulsivity. ADHD involves strong genetic influences, but environmental factors, and interactions between genetics and the environment, are thought to play an important role in ADHD as well. Much of the recent research into the neuroscience of ADHD has focused on understanding the brain networks that might underlie different aspects of cognitive function in ADHD. One example is the default mode network, which is a collection of brain regions that is more active during mind-wandering and introspection, and less active when a person is attempting to complete a specific task. Studies have found that people with ADHD have atypical connectivity in the default mode network, which might be associated with distractibility. Individuals with ADHD also display lower activity in brain networks that are involved in attention and cognitive control. Typically, activity in these networks increases when activity in the default mode network decreases, and vice versa. Thus, one hypothesis is that in ADHD activity in the default mode network is dysregulated and interferes with the function of networks involved in attention and cognitive control. Studies have also found that people with ADHD tend to display atypical activity in the reward system, a group of structures that are involved in motivated behavior, anticipation, and reinforced learning. This atypical reward system activity might be associated with a tendency to overestimate the value of short-term rewards in comparison to long-term rewards, which could also affect planning and decision-making. The reward system includes some of the major dopamine pathways in the brain, and dopamine is often implicated in ADHD because medications that are commonly used to treat the condition, such as amphetamine and methylphenidate, cause increased transmission of dopamine and norepinephrine. REFERENCES: Faraone SV, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Biederman J, Buitelaar JK, Ramos-Quiroga JA, Rohde LA, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Tannock R, Franke B. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Aug 6;1:15020. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.20. PMID: 27189265. Gallo EF, Posner J. Moving towards causality in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: overview of neural and genetic mechanisms. Lancet Psychiatry. 2016 Jun;3(6):555-67. doi: 10.1016/S2215-0366(16)00096-1. Epub 2016 May 13. PMID: 27183902; PMCID: PMC4893880. Posner J, Polanczyk GV, Sonuga-Barke E. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet. 2020 Feb 8;395(10222):450-462. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(19)33004-1. Epub 2020 Jan 23. PMID: 31982036; PMCID: PMC7880081.
Why the brain? Why neuroscience? Who’s it for, what’s it about, how does it affect you and why should we care? A video from the British Neuroscience Association (BNA) featuring Uta Frith, David Nutt, Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, Paul Howard-Jones, Ruby Wax, Matt Eagles, Stafford Lightman, Jamie Thakrar, Anne Cooke, Georgina Hazell and Alex Collcutt. See more about the British Neuroscience Association at 🤍bna.org.uk
In a piece of brain tissue smaller than a dust mite, there are thousands of brain cell branches and connections. Researchers from Harvard University in Boston, MA have mapped them all in a new study appearing in Cell. They find some unexpected insights about how the cells talk to each other. Find the paper here: 🤍 30 July 2015
Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a disorder that develops after someone experiences a traumatic event; it involves a variety of intrusive symptoms related to the trauma. In this video, I discuss hypotheses about what might be going on in the brain to cause PTSD. TRANSCRIPT: Post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD, is a condition that develops after someone experiences a traumatic event. It involves the occurrence of intrusive symptoms like nightmares or distressing memories that are linked to the trauma and may cause the person to feel like they are reliving aspects of the traumatic event. These symptoms also lead to the avoidance of things that remind a person of the trauma. PTSD may cause various other issues such as difficulty sleeping, negative emotions like fear, guilt, or sadness, trouble concentrating, and irritability. Although the neurocircuitry underlying PTSD is still not completely clear, one supported hypothesis suggests that PTSD involves decreased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex and increased activity in subnuclei of the amygdala that are involved in the identification of threats. According to this hypothesis, the medial prefrontal cortex normally acts to regulate amygdala function, inhibiting it when there is not an immediate threat to devote attention to. In an individual with PTSD, however, the amygdala might be hyperactive and provoke a fearful reaction in response to trauma-related stimuli. The medial prefrontal cortex fails to inhibit this unnecessary amygdala activation, causing patients to experience responses that are disproportionate to the threat that trauma-related stimuli currently pose. Some patients with PTSD, however, also experience the suppression of emotions, which causes symptoms like social detachment and emotional numbness. This might be caused by an opposing mechanism where increased activity in the medial prefrontal cortex dampens activity in regions such as the amygdala and other areas involved in emotional expression. Thus, the neuroscience of the disorder is complex and the neurocircuitry involved likely depends on the symptoms a particular patient displays. Additionally, more recent research has suggested a role for other networks that span larger areas of the brain in bringing about the symptoms of PTSD. REFERENCES: Etkin A, Wager TD. Functional neuroimaging of anxiety: a meta-analysis of emotional processing in PTSD, social anxiety disorder, and specific phobia. Am J Psychiatry. 2007 Oct;164(10):1476-88. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.2007.07030504. PMID: 17898336; PMCID: PMC3318959. Rauch SL, Shin LM, Whalen PJ, Pitman RK. Neuroimaging and the Neuroanatomy of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. CNS Spectrums. 1998 July/August;3(7):31-41. Yehuda R, Hoge CW, McFarlane AC, Vermetten E, Lanius RA, Nievergelt CM, Hobfoll SE, Koenen KC, Neylan TC, Hyman SE. Post-traumatic stress disorder. Nat Rev Dis Primers. 2015 Oct 8;1:15057. doi: 10.1038/nrdp.2015.57. PMID: 27189040.
Check out this video to see highlights from Neuroscience 2022, which attracted over 24,000 attendees from around the world. SfN’s annual meeting is the world’s largest neuroscience conference for scientists and physicians devoted to understanding the brain and the nervous system. Join SfN in Washington, D.C. for Neuroscience 2023 in November: 🤍
This video is available for instant download licensing here : 🤍 ©Alila Medical Media. All rights reserved. Support us on Patreon and get FREE downloads and other great rewards: patreon.com/AlilaMedicalMedia The human brain is divided into three major parts : - The cerebrum (SER-eh-brum) – the largest part of the human brain. The cerebrum enables sensory perception and controls voluntary motor actions. - The cerebellum (SER-eh-BEL-um) – the cerebellum lies inferior to the cerebrum at the back of the head. It is mostly involved in coordination of movement and fine tuning of motor activities. - The brainstem - the brainstem is located at the base of the brain and is continuous to the spinal cord. It houses all nerve connections between different parts of the central nervous system. The brainstem provides innervation to the head and neck via cranial nerves. It also contains nuclei associated with important body functions such as regulation of blood pressure, respiration, swallowing, bladder control, sleep cycle, … among others. On top of the brainstem, and sometimes classified as part of it, is the diencephalon. The main components of the diencephalon are: - The thalamus – the thalamus serves as a gateway relaying sensory signals originated throughout the body to the cerebral cortex. It is also involved in emotional and memory functions. - The hypothalamus – the hypothalamus is the major control center of the autonomic nervous system and plays essential role in homeostatic regulation. The hypothalamus links the nervous system to the endocrine system via the pituitary gland. It also contains nuclei involved in regulation of body temperature, food and water intake, sleep and wake cycle, memory and emotional behavior. The cerebrum consists of two cerebral hemispheres. The left hemisphere controls the right half of the body. The right hemisphere controls the left half of the body. The two hemispheres are separated by a deep groove called the longitudinal fissure. Each hemisphere has a number of folds called gyri (JY-rye) separated by grooves called sulci (SUL-sye). A major landmark is the central sulcus. The cerebrum has four major lobes. The frontal lobe is situated anterior to the central sulcus. It is associated mainly with voluntary motor functions, planning, motivation, emotion and social judgment. Posterior to the central sulcus is the parietal lobe. This lobe is mainly concerned with sensory functions of the somatosensory category such as touch, stretch, movement, temperature and pain. The temporal lobe is separated from the frontal and parietal lobes by the lateral sulcus. The temporal lobe is associated with hearing, learning, visual memory and language. The occipital lobe is located at the rear of the cerebrum. This is the visual processing center of the brain. At first glance, the two hemispheres look identical, but research has found a number of differences between them. This is called lateralization of brain function. For example, the language formation areas - the Wernicke’s (WUR-ni-keez) and Broca’s areas - are usually located in the left hemisphere of right-handed people. Lesions to these areas result in language comprehension deficits or speech disorders. The corresponding areas in the right hemisphere are responsible for emotional aspect of language. Lesions to these areas do not affect speech comprehension and formation, but result in emotionless speech and inability to understand the emotion behind the speech such as sarcasm or a joke. All images/videos by Alila Medical Media are for information purposes ONLY and are NOT intended to replace professional medical advice, diagnosis or treatment. Always seek the advice of a qualified healthcare provider with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.
In my 2-Minute Neuroscience videos I explain neuroscience topics in about 2 minutes or less. In this video, I cover the reward system. I discuss dopamine's role in reward as well as the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, mesocortical dopamine pathway, ventral tegmental area, and nucleus accumbens. For an article (on my website) that explains the reward system, click this link: 🤍 TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss the reward system. The reward system refers to a group of structures that are activated whenever we experience something rewarding like using an addictive drug. When exposed to a rewarding stimulus, the brain responds by increasing release of the neurotransmitter dopamine. Thus, structures that are considered part of the reward system are found along the major dopamine pathways in the brain. The pathway most often associated with reward is the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, which starts in an area of the brainstem called the ventral tegmental area, or VTA. The VTA is one of the principal dopamine-producing areas in the brain and the mesolimbic dopamine pathway connects it with the nucleus accumbens, a nucleus found in a part of the brain that is strongly associated with motivation and reward called the ventral striatum. When we use an addictive drug or experience something rewarding, dopamine neurons in the VTA are activated. These neurons project to the nucleus accumbens via the mesolimbic dopamine pathway, and their activation causes dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens to rise. Another major dopamine pathway, the mesocortical pathway, also originates in the VTA but travels to the cerebral cortex, specifically to the frontal lobes. It is also activated during rewarding experiences and is considered part of the reward system. Because dopamine is released whenever we use an addictive drug, researchers initially thought dopamine must be the neurotransmitter that causes pleasure. More recent research, however, suggests that dopamine activity doesn’t correlate exactly with pleasure. For example, dopamine neurons are activated before a reward is actually received and thus before the pleasure is experienced. For this (and other) reasons, it is now thought dopamine has roles other than causing pleasure, such as assigning importance to environmental stimuli associated with rewards and increasing reward-seeking. Whatever the precise role of dopamine in reward is, the mesolimbic dopamine pathway is consistently activated during rewarding experiences, leading it to be considered the main structure of the reward system. Regardless, the actual network of brain structures involved in mediating reward is much larger and more complex than just this dopamine pathway, involving many other brain regions and neurotransmitters. REFERENCES: Berridge KC. The debate over dopamine's role in reward: the case for incentive salience. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2007 Apr;191(3):391-431. Epub 2006 Oct 27. Wise RA (1998). Drug-activation of brain reward pathways. Drug and alcohol dependence, 51(1-2): 13-22.
Find out more about the MSc Neuroscience at the Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience (IoPPN), King’s College London. Hear from Course Leader, Dr Eamonn Walsh, and current Neuroscience students and Alumnus of this fantastic course. Our Neuroscience MSc course will provide you with multidisciplinary training in a range of neuroscience topics, particularly those relevant to psychiatry and neurology. It seeks to equip graduates from a wide range of backgrounds for the next stage of their career, which may be either further full-time study in a neuroscience-related academic research environment, or employment in an academic, clinical or pharmaceutical organisation.
In this video, I discuss the neuron, briefly touching on all of the parts of a neuron including the dendrites, soma, axon hillock, axon, and axon terminals or synaptic boutons. I describe how a signal travels from the dendrites of a neuron, down the axon, and to the axon terminals to communicate with another neuron through the release of neurotransmitter. For a more in-depth 10-Minute Neuroscience video on the parts of a neuron, watch this: 🤍 For an article (on my website) explaining the structure and function of neurons, click this link: 🤍 The image of a brain used in this video is a CC image courtesy of _DJ_ on Flickr. The work can be seen here: 🤍 and the CC license can be seen here: 🤍 TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I simplistically explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss the neuron. This is a brain. Estimates vary but right now the best guess seems to be that our brains contain around 85 billion neurons. The neuron is a nerve cell and is the primary functional unit of the nervous system. This is a generic image of a neuron. Neurons actually come in all shapes and sizes but is the prototypical version of a neuron that you’ll often see in a textbook. These structures extending from the left side of a neuron that look a little bit like tree branches are called dendrites. Dendrites are the area where neurons receive most of their information. There are receptors on dendrites that are designed to pick up signals from other neurons that come in the form of chemicals called neurotransmitters. Those signals picked up by dendrites cause electrical changes in a neuron that are interpreted in an area called the soma or the cell body. The soma contains the nucleus. The nucleus contains the DNA or genetic material of the cell. The soma takes all the information from the dendrites and puts it together in an area called the axon hillock. If the signal coming from the dendrites is strong enough then a signal is sent to the next part of the neuron called the axon. At this point the signal is called an action potential. The action potential travels down the axon which is covered with myelin, an insulatory material that helps to prevent the signal from degrading. The last step for the action potential is the axon terminals, also known as synaptic boutons. When the signal reaches the axon terminals it can cause the release of neurotransmitter. These purple structures represent the dendrites of another neuron. When a neurotransmitter is released from axon terminals, it interacts with receptors on the dendrites of the next neuron, and then the process repeats with the next neuron. REFERENCE: Purves D, Augustine GJ, Fitzpatrick D, Hall WC, Lamantia AS, McNamara JO, White LE. Neuroscience. 4th ed. Sunderland, MA. Sinauer Associates; 2008.
In this video, I briefly explain the function of microglia and the main types of macroglia: astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells, ependymal cells, radial glia, and satellite cells. TRANSCRIPT: Welcome to 2 minute neuroscience, where I explain neuroscience topics in 2 minutes or less. In this installment I will discuss glial cells. Glia is Greek for glue, and glial cells got this name b/c they were thought to simply hold neurons in place. We now know, however, that glia have many other functions. Glial cells can be divided into two classes: microglia and macroglia. Microglia act as the primary immune defense of the central nervous system. They travel throughout the brain and spinal cord and remove things like damaged neurons, pathogens, or other foreign substances.The rest of the glial cells I’ll discuss are considered macroglia. Astrocytes are star-shaped glial cells with many functions, which include providing nutrient support to neurons, helping repair damage to nervous system tissue, regulating communication between neurons, and maintaining the blood-brain-barrier, which keeps potentially toxic substances in the blood from entering the brain. Oligodendrocytees and schwann cells are both responsible for covering neurons with an insulatory material called myelin. Oligodendrocytes myelinate neurons in the central nervous system and schwann cells myelinate neurons in the peripheral nervous system. Ependymal cells are found in the walls of the ventricles, where they produce cerebrospinal fluid, which then circulates around the brain, performing many functions including protecting the brain from injury and removing waste products from the brain. Radial glia are involved in neurogenesis and neural development. They can give birth to new neurons and also serve as a scaffold along which new neurons can travel from their site of origin to their final destination in the brain. Satellite cells surround neurons in some parts of the peripheral nervous system, playing a protective and supportive role. Although their role is not fully understood, it is thought they might be involved with regulating the neuronal environment of some peripheral nervous system neurons. Reference: Vanderah TW, Gould DJ. Nolte's The Human Brain. 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016.
Session 3: IMPLICATIONS OF TRAINING PROGRAMS Neuro-Education, Educational Neuroscience, and the Research-Practice Gap: A Cautionary Tale Amy Shelton, Professor of Education; Associate Dean of Research, School of Education; Director of Research, Center for Talented Youth, Johns Hopkins University recorded January 22, 2018, Johns Hopkins University Hodson Hall
Stanford Health Care planners knew that people with neurological disorders experience the world with a particular perspective. Sometimes, every step is a challenge. Or, finding their way around might be difficult. Doctors know, too, that their patients can need care from more than one neurological subspecialty. Doctors and patients talked and the result is the new Stanford Neuroscience Health Center, a place where barriers to care are at a minimum and collaboration is as easy as walking across a hallway. This video shows what happens when patients’ ideas come first. Learn more about the Stanford Neuroscience Health Center: 🤍